Answers Fitness Theory Fast Track Course Assignments

Fitness Theory Course – Pre-Course Assignment ANSWERS
© Aaron Tews 2005-2024

Chapter 1

Fill in the Blank
1. Occupational, Leisure Time, Household
2. Nutrition, Personal Care, Exercise
3. Education, Career, Intellectual Pursuits
4. Family, Friends, Love, Socializing

True & False
1. F – Evidence shows that being inactive can lead the individual to develop high blood pressure or obesity
2. F – Hypokinesis is the opposite of that. It is a general decrease in muscular function or movement from
inactivity
3. F – Since 1979 childhood obesity has tripled

Matching
1. D
2. C
3. B
4. A

Short Answer Section
1. Cardiovascular, Muscular Strength, Muscular Endurance, Flexibility
2. Physical activity is any bodily movement produced by the skeletal muscles the expenditure of energy.  While physical exercise is when a movement is performed in a scheduled, consistent manner
3. A controllable risk factor is something that a person can in their life. For example, laying around watching tv all day, smoking or drinking alcohol. This will increase their chances of developing heart disease, becoming obese, and having high blood pressure. An uncontrollable risk is something that is out of a persons’ hands. For example, their age, genetics, or gender can all play a role in their health / lifestyle.
4. The maximum amount of recommended screen time is 2 hours per day. Though I would not recommend sitting in front of the screen for 2 hours straight. I would have them break it up over the course of the day. It is better to have the parents (or with their friends) play with the child by kicking a soccer ball around, playing pass with a lacrosse ball or taking them to the park to play. Generally, by making physical activity enjoyable, the child will be more inclined to continue a healthy lifestyle as they age
5. Minimize Work with health authorities, family GPs, primary care providers, community partners and others to advance the health of women & children through comprehensive and effective programs and services. Support families and individual to invest in their own health through programs and incentives that lead to healthy lifestyle choices. Improve health outcomes for Aboriginal people and communities and provide culturally safe health services to all Aboriginal people in BC
6. Set realistic expectations for the client. Encourage adequate sleep for their needs
7. Answers will vary
8. Answers will vary
9. Answers will vary

Chapter 2

Matching Section
1. G
2. F
3. E
4. D
5. C
6. H
7. I
8. A
9. B
10. J

Define the following directional terms (and provide example):
1. Anterior (ventral): Definition: The front of the body. Example: The pectoralis major muscles are located on the anterior surface of the body.
2. Posterior (dorsal): Definition: The back on the body. Example: The trapezius muscle is located on the posterior surface of the body.
3. Superior (cranial): Definition: Towards the head. Example: The nose is superior to the mouth.
4. Inferior (caudal): Definition: Away from the head. Example: The calf is inferior to the thigh.
5. Medial: Definition: Towards the mid-line of the body. Example: The pubic symphysis is located medially the iliac crest.
6. Lateral: Definition: Away from the midline. Example: The vastus lateralis muscle is located laterally to the vastus medialis muscle
7. Proximal: Definition: Closer to any point of reference. Example: The elbow is proximal to the wrist.
8. Distal: Definition: Farther from any point of reference. Example: The ankle is distal to the knee.
9. Superficial: Definition: Close to or on surface of body. Example: The pectoralis major muscle is superficial to the pectoralis minor muscle
10. Deep: Definition: Beneath body surface. Example: The soleus muscle is deep to the gastrocnemius muscle

Define the following terms
1. Rest Principle: Without adequate rest between training, the problems associated with overtraining are inevitable
2. Progressive Overload: Gradual and systemic increases in the stress and demand placed on the body
3. S.A.I.D. Principle: The body will adapt specially to the new demands placed upon it and the training effect is specific in speed, resistance, duration, muscle
groups, and joint actions
4. F.I.T.T: Training programs should be designed around exercise. Frequency,
Intensity, Time, and Type.
5. Fartlek: (Speed-Play) defined as periods of fast running intermixed with periods
of slower running. It is unstructured and the speed /intensity varies.
6. H.I.I.T: High Intensity Interval Training. Workouts involve alternating between
periods of high and low intensity.
7. Anatomical Position: The position of the human body, standing erect, with the hands/palms are facing forward and the feet are together
8. Chronic: Of long durations, the opposite of acute.

Fill in the Blank Section
1. Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire
2. 7
3. 15-69
4. doctor, written clearance
5. PAR-Q+
6. Talk Test / Rate of Perceived Exertion

True & False Section
1. F
2. F

Short Answer Section
1. Warmup, Stretching, Workout, Cooldown
2. Decreased performance, Chronic DOMS, Decreased recovery time, Fatigue
3. Development and maintenance of muscular strength, muscular mass, muscular endurance, and muscular power. Increase bone density and mass. Increased strength of connective tissue. Reduced mental fatigue. Improved level of glucose tolerance
4. Keeps excessive weight off. Increased Stamina. Keeps arteries clear. Improves emotional wellbeing. Strengthens immune systems

Chapter 7

Multiple Choice Section
1. C
2. B
3. D
4. D
5. C
6. C
7. D
8. C
9. D

Define the following terms
1. Golgi Tendon Organ: A protective sensory organ, located deep within the musculo-tendinous junction. Its purpose is to protect a muscle against too much force
development, when stimulated, causes an inhibition of a muscle group.
2. Muscle Spindle: Is a protective sensory organ or proprioceptor, located within muscle tissue and lies parallel to the muscle fibres. It senses the velocity or rate of stretch,
and its purpose is to protect against excessive stretching of the muscle.
3. Ergogenic Training Aid: Any tool the improves or is thought to improve physical performance and includes weight belts and wrist straps.
4. Supinated Grip: An underhand grip where the palms are turned forward and the thumbs away from each other while gripping the bar. + anatomical position
5. Pronated Grip: An overhand grip where the palms face behind the body and the thumbs are close to each other while gripping the bar.
6. R-I-C-E: Stands for Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation. It is an acronym for
treatment of an injury. For example, a sprained ankle.
7. Strain: Injuries to the muscles or tendons.
8. Sprain: Are injuries where excessive twisting or stretching of a joint occurs and a
ligament tears or separates from the bone.

Short Answer Section
1. It is a gradual and systemic increase in the stress or demand placed upon the neuromuscular system. By gradually increasing resistance, whether it is from resistance training or cardio, it allows for a safe progression toward the client’s goals. Thus, allowing the migration of injury from going “too heavy too soon” or “too fast too soon”. It will also allow the body to adapt easier to the new stimulus
2. A person should accumulate 60 minutes of physical activity 4-7 days a week to stay healthy or improve your health with the primary focus on cardiovascular fitness
3. Frequency: 3-6x per week Intensity: 50-90% MHR  50-85% HHR or 4-9 RPE Time: 20+ min in target heart zone rate Type: Aerobic activities, jogging, cycling, swimming
4. Frequency: 2-3x per week (per muscle group) with focus on steady paced concentric and eccentric muscles actions Intensity: 60-70% of 1 RM   Time: 13+ reps Type: Resistance – Machines, free weights, bands, kettlebells
5. Frequency: 2-3x per week (per muscle group) with focus on eccentric muscle action Intensity: 70-85% of 1 RM Time: 6-12 reps Type: Resistance – Machines, free weights,
bands, kettlebells
6. Frequency 2-3x per week (per muscle group) with slow and controlled concentric and eccentric muscle actions Intensity: 85-100% of 1 RM Time: 1-4 reps Type: Resistance – Machines, free weights, bands, kettlebells
7. Static method. It limits the danger of damaging tissue, less energy requirement and there is prevention and / or relief from muscular soreness and tension
8. Between 10-90 seconds because if it lasts too long the heart rate and body temperature start (though that is beneficial at the cool down phase of a workout) to lower. Also, it can cause joint instability, muscle strain, and the possibility of decreased exercise performance
9. Sense muscle spindles the rate or velocity of a stretch and protects against excessive stretching of the muscle+ causing muscle to CONTRACT
10. When the tension of a muscle and tendon increases to the point of potential damage the GTO sends a neural impulse to an inhibitory neuron located within the spinal column which causes an immediate relaxation of the muscles being stretched. It protects the muscle and tendon from an excessive stretch

Chapter 8

Fill in the Blank Section
1. Motive Force ( or Force ), Pivot Point (Axis of Rotation), Resistive Force (Load), Lever Arm, Torque
2. Pectoralis, Trapezius
3. Hamstrings, Hip flexors
4. Spinal erectors, Cat stretch
5. Scalenes, Sternocleidomastoid, Rhomboids

Matching Section
1 C
2 D
3 A
4 B

Matching Section
1. C
2. A
3. D
4. B
5. E

True & False Section
1. F
2. T
3. F

Short Answer Section
1. The pushup with the feet close together is harder because it is a lead stable position when compared to having the feet should width apart
2. A sit up behind your ears is harder because the is more weight at the “end point” of the lever. Whereas with a sit up that has the hands positioned across the chest, the load is more centralized
3. The primary difference is the placement of load, force and the pivot point on each type of lever.

Chapter 9

Multiple Choice Section
1. C
2. C
3. C
4. B
5. A
6. C

Fill in the Blanks Section
1. Teacher, Advisor, Negotiator

Short Answer Section
1. To be professional, punctual, dependable, and able to communicate clearly
2. Intrinsic Motivation is behavior driven by internal rewards such as wanting to build self-confidence and the satisfaction of looking good. Extrinsic motivation is a behavior that seeks to earn external rewards or avoid punishment like wanting better overall health and fitness and an improved quality of life
3. Planning – They are creative, organized, prepared, flexible to able, Language – Appropriate body and voice language, Manner – Enthusiastic, encouraging, & motivating, Attitude – Responsible, sincere, & professional
4. Answers will vary
5. Thank them for their honest feedback and work with them on how I can make the session more positive and optimal for the chosen goals
6. Be an excellent planner, communicator, and a positive attitude
7. As it is beyond the scope of the Canada Food Guide I would tell (politely) them I am not a nutritionist and refer / suggest finding one that can help aid them in their health goals.
8. Anything personal health related outside of a Personal Trainer’s purview. The PT should refer them to appropriate health care providers. For example, a Nutritionist or Family GP

Chapter 10

Multiple Choice Section
1. A
2. D
3. D
4. C
5. C

Fill in the Blank Section
1. Fats, Carbohydrates, Protein, Vitamins, Minerals, Water
2. Fuel / energy
3. Lipids

Matching Section
1 F
2 A
3 B
4 E
5 C
6 D
7 H
8 J

True & False Section
1. F
2. F
3. F
4. T
5. F
6. T
7. T
8. F
9. F
10. T

Short Answer Section
1. Carbohydrates, Fats, Protein
2. The 1992 version outlines 4 food groups, grains, Vegetables & fruits, Milk Products, and Meat & Alternatives and uses serving sizes on a “food rainbow”. While encouraging us to eat of more fruits and vegetables. The 2019 version uses a dinner plate and a glass of water. The plate is covered with 50% of the plate with fruits and vegetables, 25% protein, and 25% with whole grain breads, pasta or brown rice
3. Carbohydrates
4. Water
5. To provide energy for working muscles in the form of glucose. They can be stored in limited amounts in the liver and muscles in the form of glycogen. The excess is converted and stored as fat in the body. Provides dietary fiber for mobility health
6. There is no difference. 500kcals is the same as 500 calories
7. There are essential for the optimal functioning of many physiological processes in the body
8. We need to understand how various types of foods will affect blood glucose and insulin levels differently especially when working with clients with diabetes

Fill in the Blank Section
1 14 grams of Protein x 4 calories per gram = 56 calories GOOD
2 56 calories ÷ 318 total calories per serving = 0.146 x100= 14.6% GOOD
3 17.0 grams of Fat x 9 calories per gram = 153 calories
4 153 calories ÷ 381 total calories per serving = 0.402 x 100 = 40.2 %
5 43 grams of Carbohydrates x 4 calories per gram = 172 calories
6 172 calories ÷ 381 total calories per serving = 0.451 x 100 = 45.1%